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Solved Notes – Chapter-1 : BBA \ 1st semester |Computer & IT Application

Level: BBA 1st Semester | Subject: Computer & IT Application | PU (Pokhara University)

1. What do you understand by input output device? Describe in detail about the working principle and uses of plotter and barcode reader.

==>> Input Output Device

Computers need to receive data and instructions for processing and solve any problem. Input devices accept data and instruction from outside world and gives converted form of it that a computer can understand. Examples: keyboard, mouse, light pen etc.

The output device provides the information and results of a computation of computer to outside world. Printers, Visual Display Unit (VDU) are the commonly used output devices.

Working Principle and Use of Plotter and Barcode Reader

The working principle and uses of plotter and barcode reader are explained briefly:

Plotter is an output device to print or produce mono or multiple colours images and drawing. It uses ink pen or ink jet for plotting. It works on the principle of human hand holding a pen and moving it on paper. With plotter moving the paper and pen holder are used to allow the pen to be in precisely the right point at the right time. The pen does not start at the top right moving to the left and then down a line. The plotter takes the whole image data, and then calculates a path for the pen.

The pen draws the image according to the instructions received from the computer. The path for the pen may look complicated while the pen is in motion. In fact the plotter has calculated the shortest rout for the pen that involves the least amount of crossed lines as possible. This makes the path drawing efficient and ensures there is the least possible chance of the final drawing getting smudged. Mechanical movement is excessive during plotting. Various size and color pens are used.

Barcode Reader is an electronic device of reading barcode. A barcode is an optical machine readable representation of data which shows contain data on contain product. It consists of a light source, a lens and a light sensor translating optical impales into electrical ones. Additionally all barcode readers contain decoder circuity analyzing the barcode’s image data provided by the sensor and sending the barcode’s content to the scanner’s output part.

BBA Notes ==>> Solved Long Questions Answer – Chapter-1 : BBA \ 1st semester |Computer & IT Application

2. What is MS-DOS? Differentiate between DOS and Windows operating system, in light of the user interface.

==>> MS-DOS

MS-DOS stands for Microsoft Disk Operating System. MS-DOS is a command line interface operating system produced by Microsoft. MS-DOS is operated using commands in prescribed syntax.

Differentiation between DOS and Windows

The differences between DOS and Windows operating system in light of user interface are:

DOSWindows
It is command line InterfaceIt is graphical user Interface.
Use of commands for operation.Use of graphics button, menus etc. for operation.
Use of keyboard only.Use of both mouse and keyboards.
Not user-friendly.User friendly.
Exclusive of multimedia features like video, sounds etc.Inclusive of all multimedia features.

3. “A Computer system without software is like a dead machine”, Justify the statement.

BBA notes
BBA notes

==>> Software is a collection of program or sequence of instruction given to a computer to perform a particular task. It is defined as soul of a computer. It clearly defines that it is the life of a computer and computer hardware as only the body or physical part. The term dead defines things with no response and cannot do anything. So, when a computer is without software, it does not do anything and does not get any instructions nor gives response. Every command, instruction, data given into the computer is interface of hardware and user through software.

Everything we do is in computer hardware but it is not possible without software. So to be lively, interactive and responsive to user, a computer needs software otherwise it features all the characteristic of a dead machine that is no reaction and no use. The performance, features and application of computer depend on software that is installed in it. Without software, computer hardware cannot do anything as it does not understand the instruction what to do. Therefore we can conclude that “A Computer system without software is like a dead machine”.

4. What is cash memory? Why it is needed in modern computer system?

BBA notes
BBA notes

==>> Cache Memory

Cache or pronounced cash memory is a smaller, extremely fast memory that is built into CPU or located next to it separate chip. It stores and copies the data from the most frequently used main memory locations. A CPU cache is a cache used by the central processing unit of a computer to reduce average time to access memory. As long as most memory accesses are cached memory locations, the average latency (time interval) of memory accesses will be closer to the cache latency. When the processor needs to read from or write to a location in main memory, it first checks whether a copy of that data is in the cache. If so, the processor immediately reads from or writes to the cache, which is much faster than reading from or writing to main memory.

It is needed in modern computer system because the recent processing time requirement is very high. Calculations and processing of data need to be done in very short period of time. The latency time to access data from secondary and main memory is slow as compared to cache memory latency and it expensive to use fast memory of higher storage capacity. Hence using cache memory, we can get higher speed by storing frequently or recently used data and instruction in cache of modern computer system.

BBA Notes: Solved Notes – Unit: 1 – Computing Devices, Software & Operating System | BBA 1st Semester | Computer & IT Application

5. What do you mean by computer networks? Explain types of computer networks.

BBA notes
BBA notes

==>> Computer Network

Computer network is a group of computers or devices that are connected together by communication link. Computers are in network only when they are autonomous computers. Computers are in network only when they are able to exchange information. A large number of users belonging to same area or same organization but spread over at different places can communicate and share useful files, software and information at right times via network of computers.

Types of Computer Network

Computer network can be categorized into various types. Some of the important ones are discussed briefly:

According to Architecture:

a. Peer to Peer Network: In peer to peer network architecture, there is not any dedicated client or server. Computers can take both as client and server role. There is not any centralized authority control over share resources. All computers have equal access and responsibility in peer to peer network. This network is suitable for equal access and lower number of computers.

b. Client server network: There is a dedicated computer to act as server. The server has the centralized control over the network resources. The server controls the services, access to resources by server configuration to other computers (client) in the network. Usually suitable for larger number of user with security and resource sharing issues.

According to size (geographical):

i. Local Area Network:

  • Network in same premises, confined to single building or group of buildings generally belonging to same organization.
  • Network in which LAN protocols are used or devices are used in LAN.
  • Communication Infrastructure:
    • Twisted pair cables (Computer below 100).
    • Co-axial Cables (>100).
    • Optical Fibers (>1000).
  • Data rates much higher than those of WANs and MANs.

ii. Metropolitan Area Networks:

  • Within a metropolitan city.
  • Middle ground between LAN and WAN.
  • Private or public network.
  • High speed data rate than WAN but less than LAN.
  • Communication Infrastructure:
    • CATV (community Antena Television Cable).
    • Cables (Twisted, Coaxial).
    • Optical Fibers
    • Radio Links.

iii. Wide Area Networks:

  • Span a large geographical area (Inter City, Inter Country, and Inter Continental).
  • Require the crossing of public right of ways.
  • Rely at least in part of circuits provided by a common carrier.
  • WAN consists of a number of interconnected switching nodes.
  • Data rates slow as compared to other.
  • Communication Infrastructure:
  • Terrestrial Data Network (Cables, Fiber Optics, Radio links etc.)
  • Satellite Base Data Network (Geostationary Satellites).

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6. What are the different type’s operating system? Explain the main function of operating system.

BBA notes
BBA notes

==>> Types of Operating System

There are different types of operating being developed for performing the operation requested by user. Different operating systems have different capabilities to perform the requests. According to different working techniques, operating systems are:

  • Serial Processing
  • Batch Processing
  • Multiprogramming
  • Real time system
  • Distributed Operating System
  • Multiprocessing
  • Parallel operating system
  • According to the user interface.
    • Command line User Interface
    • Graphical User Interfa
  • Functions of Operating System

The main functions of operating system are explained briefly:

a. Resource Management: Operating system will manage all the resources. Resources mean all the hardware like memory, processor and all the input output devices. Operating system will identify the resource attached and at which time the CPU will perform which operation. It deals with all the timing of hardware and what to perform by the resources.

b. Data Management: The data management functions of an OS govern the input of the data and their locations, storage, and retrieval.

c. Job Management: The job management functions of an OS prepares, schedules, controls, and monitors jobs submitted for execution to ensure the most efficient processing. A job is a collection of one or more related programs and their data.

d. Virtual Storage Management: OS provide a feature virtual storage management with which it is possible to increase the capacity of main memory without actually increasing its size.

e. Input/ Output Management: OS manages the input output operation of computer. This function includes the flow of data among computers, terminals, and other devices such as printers. Application programs use the operating system to handle input and output devices as needed.

f. User Interface and communication: It is one of the most important functions of operating system. Hardware does not understand human language and general people do not know machine language. So Operation system acts as an interpreter between them. It communicates with all the hardware and software components of computers. It establishes link between computer and operators, hardware and software, memory and software, I/O unit and software.

g. Time-sharing: The time-sharing is also function of operating system. It provides time slice to each terminal, but on the same computer system, at the same time.

7. What is PC (Personal Computer)? Write its history of development.

BBA notes
BBA notes

==>> PC (Personal Computer)

A personal computer is a general purpose computer whose size, capabilities and sales price make it useful for individual. It is intended to be operated directly by an end user. It is the smallest, least expensive of all computers. Micro computers are commonly known as personal computers. PC may be desktop, laptop or palmtop.

History of Development of PC

Computer development has been categorized form first to fifth generation with the technology development and use. However, regarding the historical development of personal computer, it began in 1977 with the introduction of microcomputers which largely occupied the consumer electronic devices market. According to definition of PC, it’s a single-user system intended for interactive individual use which became accessible after the development of microprocessor. With the use of microprocessor, price of PC was affordable to individual person.

By mid 1970’s, computer manufactures sought to bring computers to general consumers. These products came complete with user-friendly software packages that offered even non-technical users an array of application, most popularly word processing and spreadsheet programs. Pioneers in this field were Commodore, Radio Shack and Apple computers. In 1981, IBM introduced its personal computer (PC) for use in the home, office and schools.

The 1980’s saw an expansion in computer use as clones of the IBM PC made the personal computer even more affordable. Computers continued their trend toward a smaller size, working their way down from desktop to laptop computers even late to palmtop. In direct competition with IBM PC was Apple’s Macintosh line introduced in 1984 which introduced the GUI operating system in their system. Some of the examples of PC according to timeline are:

  • Commodore PET (Personal Electronic Transactor): It is the first several personal computer released in 177. It came fully assembled and was straight forward to operate with 4 to 8 KB of memory, two built-in cassette drive and a membrane keyboard.
  • Apple II: It became an instant success when released in 1977 with printed circuit motherboard, switching power supply, keyboard, case assembly, manual game paddles, A/C power cord and color monitor .
  • Lis: In 1983 Apple introduced Lisa. The first personal computer with a graphical user interface. Its development was central in the move to such system for personal computers. Its high price led to its failure.
  • Compaq Computer Corp. introduced first PC clone that used the same software as the IBM PC. With the introduction of its PC clone, Compaq launched a market for IBM-compatible computers that by 1996 has achieved a 83 percent share of the personal computer market.

8. Differentiate between CUI and GUI.

==>> Differentiation between CUI and GUI

CUIGUI
It is based on command user interface. Instructions and commands are given through keyboards using syntax (character).It is based on graphical user interface. Instructions and command are given through interaction with graphical components like icon, menu etc.
Difficult to use as all the command.User friendly as graphical interface is easy to learn than memorizing syntax in CUI.
Only keyboard as input device.Keyboard, mouse, joysticks and many other input devices can be used.
Single user and single tasking.Mostly multi user and mulit-tasking.
e.g. DOSe.g. Windows

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