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The Scientific Inquiry: Invention and Test – Four Levels of Interactions | Flax Golden Tales

The Scientific Inquiry: Invention and Test - Four LevelsThe Scientific Inquiry: Invention and Test – Four Levels of Interactions | Flax-Golden Tales

The Scientific Inquiry: Invention and Test – Carl G. Hempel, Germany (1905-1997)

Literal Comprehension

This essay is written by Hempel who shows the medical investigation of Semmelweis, a physician who wants to know the cause of dying women from childbed. Semmelweis did various examinations to control the death of women in the first maternity division. He also forbade the priest to ring the bell to give the final sacrament to dying women when he entered into sick chamber. Similarly, he also reduced the number of medical students, but all his effort went in vain (meaningless). Finally, when one of his friends, Kolletchka died of minor injury, then somehow he knew the real cause of childbed fever.

In fact, the medical students would do a post-mortem and without washing their hand properly, they would also look after the women. As a result, women were infected by childbed fever. Later on, he ordered them to wash their hands properly. After that, the no. of the women’s death extremely decreased and remained only 1.27% while in the second div., there was a higher rate, i.e. 1.33%. He also asserts that childbed fever is not only the cause of not washing hand but also the cause of decaying living organism.


This essay tells us that no one is perfect in their own field. We respect the doctors like a god but he/ she does the mistake. His/ her even minor mistake pushes the patients towards death. In the essay, man women were victimized by the carelessness of the medical students who worked in the First Maternity Division. But it does not mean that all the doctors are careless. A physician likes Semmelweis who deeply dedicated to his profession and trying hard to find out the causes of his patient’s death due to childbed fever. Anyway, the writer Hempel is trying to express that the job of a doctor is very sensitive one so, that should be handled carefully, otherwise minor disease having patients also die untimely.

Critical Thinking

There are many unacceptable ideas which I found in my deep studies. First and foremost, we can raise a question upon Semmelweis’s investigation and its solution of dying woman due to childbed fever. are not the medical students careless to the patient? Did not they even know to wash their hand properly? Was the main cause of childbed fever of not washing hands? Were not other reasons for childbed fever? Cannot we suspect the profession of doctor? If the doctor kills the patient, then, why go to the hospital for treatment? In this regard, Is not It better to get the birth of a baby on the way rather than in the hospital?


After reading this story, I remembered past events in which my friends, Hari was suffering from stomachache. I advised him to check up to hospital. The doctor examined his stomach and advised him to do surgery of stomach. He was very poor, so he did not have enough money. My father lent him money. His date of surgery was 1995 March 13. That day, his surgery completed and he was in bedridden in the hospital. After that, he became unconscious for 2 weeks. I complained the doctor about my friend’s such situation.

The doctor told me that he was unconscious because it was serious surgery and he would come in conscious soon. But his advice did not work at all and finally, he became quite sick and passed away. Then I got quite angry with the hospital staffs but they answered me with silence. Later, I came to know that my friend died due to the carelessness of doctors. According to the postmortem report, in the stomach, there was the small scissor which had been left by a doctor while doing surgery. In fact, that was the real reason for his death. So, he could not control the pain of it and die.

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