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At the millennium summit of September 2000, the member states of the United Nations adopted the Millennium Declaration, which aims to bring peace, security and development to all people. The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), drawn from the Millennium Declaration are a ground breaking international development agenda for the 21st century to which all nations are committed. The MDGs outline major development priorities to be achieved by 2015. Since GoN endorsed the Millennium Declaration, Nepal has been committed to achieving the MDGs goal. Numerical targets are set for eac goal and are to be monitored through 48 indicators. The MDGs are: All indicators should be disaggregated by sex and urban/ rural as far as possible.

Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)

Goals and Targets (from the Millennium Declaration) Indicators for monitoring progress
Goal 1: Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger
Target 1.A: Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people whose income is less than one dollar a day 1.1   Proportion of population below $1 (PPP) per day i

1.2   Poverty gap ratio

1.3   Share of poorest quintile in national consumption

Target 1.B: Achieve full and productive employment and decent work for all, including women and young people 1.4   Growth rate of GDP per person employed

1.5   Employment-to-population ratio

1.6   Proportion of employed people living below $1 (PPP) per day

1.7   Proportion of own-account and contributing family workers in total employment

Target 1.C: Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people who suffer from hunger 1.8   Prevalence of underweight children under-five years of age

1.9   Proportion of population below minimum level of dietary energy consumption

Goal 2: Achieve universal primary education
Target 2.A: Ensure that, by 2015, children everywhere, boys and girls alike, will be able to complete a full course of primary schooling 2.1 Net enrolment ratio in primary education

2.2 Proportion of pupils starting grade 1 who reach last grade of primary

Goal 3: Promote gender equality and empower women
Target 3.A: Eliminate gender disparity in primary and secondary education, preferably by 2005, and in all levels of education no later than 2015 Ratios of girls to boys in primary, secondary and tertiary education

Share of women in wage employment in the non-agricultural sector

Proportion of seats held by women in national parliament

Goal 4: Reduce child mortality
Target 4.A: Reduce by two-thirds, between 1990 and 2015, the under-five mortality rate Under-five mortality rate

Infant mortality rate

Proportion of 1 year-old children immunized against measles

Goal 5: Improve maternal health
Target 5.A: Reduce by three quarters, between 1990 and 2015, the maternal mortality ratio Maternal mortality ratio

Proportion of births attended by skilled health personnel

Target 5.B: Achieve, by 2015, universal access to reproductive health Contraceptive prevalence rate

Adolescent birth rate

Antenatal care coverage (at least one visit and at least four visits)

Unmet need for family planning

Goal 6: Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases
Target 6.A: Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS HIV prevalence among population aged 15-24 years

Condom use at last high-risk sex

Proportion of population aged 15-24 years with comprehensive correct knowledge of HIV/AIDS

Ratio of school attendance of orphans to school attendance of non-orphans aged 10-14 years

Target 6.B: Achieve, by 2010, universal access to treatment for HIV/AIDS for all those who need it Proportion of population with advanced HIV infection with access to antiretroviral drugs
Target 6.C: Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the incidence of malaria and other major diseases Incidence and death rates associated with malaria

Proportion of children under 5 sleeping under insecticide-treated bednets

Proportion of children under 5 with fever who are treated with appropriate anit-malarial drugs

Incidence, prevalence and death rates associated with tuberculosis

Proportion of tuberculosis cases detected and cured under directly observed treatment short course

Goal 7: Ensure environmental sustainability
Target 7.A: Integrate the principles of sustainable development into country policies and rogrammes and reverse the loss of environmental resources




Target 7.B: Reduce biodiversity loss, achieving, by 2010, a significant reduction in the rate of loss

Proportion of land area covered by forest

CO2 emissions, total per capita and per $1 GDP (PPP)

Consumption of ozone-depleting substances

Proportion of fish stocks within safe biological limits

Proportion of total water resources used

Proportion of terrestrial and marine areas protected

Proportion of species threatened with extinction

Target 7.C: Halve, by 2015, the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation Proportion of population using an improving drinking water source

Proportion of population using an improved sanitation facility

Target 7.D: By 2020, to have achieved a significant improvement in the lives of at least 100 million slum dwellers Proportion of urban population living in slumsii
Goal 8: Develop a global partnership for development
Target 8.A: Develop further an open, rule-base, predictable, non-discriminatory trading and financial system

Includes a commitment to good governance, development and poverty reduction-both nationally and internationally

Some of the indicator listed below are monitored separately for the least developed countries (LCDs), Africa, landlocked developing countries and small island developing States.

Official development assistance (ODA)

Target 8.B: Address the special needs of the least developed countries

Includes: tariff and quota free access for the least developed countries’ exports; enhanced programme of debt relief for heavily indebted poor countries (HIPC) and cancellation of official bilateral debt; and more generous ODA for countries committed to poverty reduction

Net ODA, total and to the least developed countries, as percentage of OECD/DAC donors’ cross national income

Proportion of total bilateral, sector-allocable ODA of OECD/DAC donors to basic social services (basic education, primary health care, nutrition, safe water and sanitation)

Proportion of bilateral official development assistance of OECD/DAC donors that is untied

ODA received in landlocked developing countries as a proportion of their gross national incomes

ODA received in small island developing States as a proportion of their gross national incomes Market access

Target 8.C: Address the special needs of landlocked developing countries and small island developing States (through the Programme of Action for the Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing States and the outcome of the twenty-second special session of the General Assembly) Proportion of total developed country imports (by value and excluding arms) form developing countries and least developed countries, admitted free of duty

Average tariffs imposed by developed countries on agricultural products and textiles and clothing from developing countries

Agricultural support estimate for OECD countries as a percentage of their gross domestic product

Proportion of ODA provided to help build trade capacity

Debt sustainability

Target 8.D: Deal comprehensively with the debt problems of developing countries through national and international measures in order to make debt sustainable in the long term Total number of countries that have reached their HIPC decision points and number that have reached their HIPC completion points (cumulative)

Debt relief committed under HIPC and MDRI Initiatives

Debt service as a percentage of exports of goods and services

Target 8.E: In cooperation with pharmaceutical companies; provide access to affordable essential drugs in developing countries Proportion of population with access to affordable essential drugs on a sustainable basis
Target 8.F: In cooperation with the private sector, make available the benefits of new technologies, especially information and communications Fixed telephone lines per 100 inhabitants

Mobile cellular subscriptions per 100 inhabitants

Internet users per 100 inhabitants

I. For monitoring country poverty trends, indicators based on national poverty lines should be used, where available.

II. The actual proportion of people living in slums is measured by a proxy, represented by the urban population living in households with at least one of the four characteristics:

a. Lack of access to improved water supply;

b. Lack of access to improved sanitation;

c. Overcrowding (3 or more persons per room); and

d. Dwellings made of non-durable material.

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