Table of Contents
Concepts and Meaning of Tourism
Long answer questions
- Describe attraction as component of tourism with the reference of natural attractions of Nepal. 
Ans: In every tourism there must be 4 As, they are Attraction, Accessibility, Accommodation and Amenities. They must be combines or work together to be tourism. Each one of them are different but they must be together to be tourism.
Attraction is anything which attracts people from. It attracts people to leave routine job and involve in travel. This element creates desire to travel. It motivates to travel. The attraction is the magnetic power of a destination. The attractions could be cultural sites of archeological interests, historical buildings, and monuments, flora and fauna, beach resorts, mountains, national parks or events like trade fairs, exhibitions, sports, arts and music festivals, games, etc. They are the factors, which generate flow of tourists to a particular location. Attraction should have two qualities; to attract and attach. Activities attached with attraction to create tourism.
Attraction can be classified as natural and manmade. The manmade attractions are historical places, cities, culture, festivals, etc. The supplementary attractions are added to increase magnetic value and to make it sellable size. Some attractions are made by others and utilized by tourism such as religious temples, city, etc. Some attractions are made for tourism purpose. The accessibility, accommodation and amenities at the destination determine the magnetic quality of an attraction.
Natural attractions are made by nature. It is god gift to the country. It does not belong to anybody to everybody. It is the national property, richness of a country. The examples of natural attractions of Nepal are Himalayas, mountains, valley, Phewa lake, Rara lake, National parks, Mahendra Gufa of Pokhara, etc. In tourism different activities are added with this attraction to create tourism. For example: trekking is added with mountain, rafting in the river, bating in the lake, etc.
2. Describe Tourism and its impacts on society and environment. 
Ans: Tourism is related to travelling, but every travel is not tourism. Man has been travelling throughout the ages but only that type of travel which is related to pleasure, relax and during the leisure generates tourism. It is a service industry but it includes many industries.
“Tourism is sum of the total activities created by travel and stay on non-resident people.” It includes business organizations, tourists, and every things of a destination.
The movement of tourists directly or indirectly influences the society and culture. Tourists are people from different culture. Their dress, food habits, manners, behaviors are different than local people. When tourists come in contract with local people a social exchange takes places. The exchange happens both way guest and host. They affect the social structure and mode of life at the destinations and they carry back home new experience, knowledge, friendship. The effects can be summarized in the following sub-heading:
- Cultural Understanding: When a tourist comes in contract with the place he visit and its population, a social exchange takes places. It develops the understandings of two distinct cultures and helps to develop friendship between the people. The interaction between people to people results in making friends and goes a long way in increasing friendships. This will lead to international understanding.
- Improving International Understanding: besides generating economic activity, tourism develops international goodwill and understanding. Tourism can be a vehicle for international understanding by way of bringing diverse people fact to face. Tourism is a medium through which we can exchange knowledge and create understanding among the people of the world.
- Preserves the Local Community: When tourists visit the local community and appreciate their custom, festivals, then the local community also tradition has been revived because of tourism. Tourism also supports morally and financially to preserve the local tradition. The tourist may also help to eliminate the local superstitions, they educate the local people and introduce new ideas. The sharing of the ideas will be beneficial for both communities. Tourism has some negative impacts on society.
- Illustrative Effects: Tourists are the people who travel for the purpose of leisure, pleasure and relax but local people do not see their hard work, how they save money to travel here and collect wrong impression. The society generally young generation copy without knowing the real meaning, which will affect the existing culture.
- Domination Effect: Tourism is related to luxurious concept. When tourist visit a destination with modern equipment, fresh dress, enjoy different types, of activities in a well mannered way the local people feel dominated. Local people feel inferior, low, uneducated. It develops negative psychological feeling among the local people.
- Cultural Change: Many times, for the purpose of tourism and because of promotion of tourism local people take part in foreign festivals. Finally, they forget the importance of local festivals and enjoy the foreign festivals.
Effects of Tourism on Environment
Movement of tourist creates impacts of on manmade and natural. The impacts are positive and negative.
- Impacts on Manmade Environment: For the purpose of tourism many beautiful old houses were destroyed and new buildings were built to give better facilities to cater the increased number of tourists. At the other hand many cities and local people has realized the importance of old city environment. They are involved in preservation and protection of old traditional craftsmanship, traditional city layout. They have realized that to welcome a lesson that traditional supports tourism and tourism supports tradition. In many part of world old historical palace, buildings, city are used for tourist purpose. The old palace has been turned into hotel.
- Natural Environment: Natural beauty is the magnet for tourist but every tourist leaves some impact knowingly. Mass tourism creates negative impact on natural environment. Local people destroyed the nature to cater to the need of tourists. Uncontrolled unplanned, tourism will lead to environment decay. At the same time tourism is very helpful to preserve natural environment. Tourism brings money and if the money is utilized properly it properly it protects environment. If eco-tourism is implemented properly, everybody wins: the environment, local communities, tourists and the national economy.