Table of Contents
Compulsory English BA second year 2069
TU Solution 2068
Time: 3 hrs FM: 100 PM: 35
Attempt all the questions.
Answer any seven questions. [7×10=70]
1. In terms of “Aspects of Language”, what do you understand by the term ‘variation’? Explain the types of linguistions.
Ans: We may think that English is a uniform system of communication used by all native speakers. But the truth is that English has a number of varieties. English spoken in U.K. and the USA are different in many ways. Within the UK or the USA, native speakers in different states or regions speak English differently with their own local color, taste, accent, vocabulary, and pronunciations. Like all languages, English varies extensively and scientific study of such variation of language in each of the three components of language: lexion (vocabulary), grammar and phonology (sound and pronounciation).
There are mainly two types of linguistic variation :
a. Between- group variation: It identifies a person as belonging to a specific group. This kind of linguistic variation can be illustrated by the regional differences and it produces regional varieties, often termed ‘dialects’. It also produces regional varieties, often termed ‘dialects’. It also produces other group varieties such as those that are associated with the speaker’s gender, social class or ethnic group. Because of regional pronounciation. Regional differences are reflected in pronunciation, grammar, and the lexicon. Another variety confirmed by research is termed ‘gender varieties, the English used by men and women. For example, in both British English (BE) and American English (AE), men tend to use the non-standard pronounciation more often than women do.
B. Variation within the individual: It occurs within the language of all speakers and is associated with changes in the social situations in which individual find themselves. This variation is also referd to as ‘style shifting’. Speakers often use the style or level of language that fits the situation. Casual style or level of language that fits the situation. Casual style and formal style are examples of it. Sociolinguists study the linguistic changes that signal a style shift has taken place. They also seek to identify the relevant components of the situation or variables with which the relevant components of the situation or variables with which the shift is associated. These variables include different roles an individual might play: role a parent, a teacher, a colleague etc.
Such roles are closely connected to the relationship between an individual and the person to whom he or she is speaking. The ‘setting’ or the physical environment in which the style interaction takes place is also vital. Such a setting may influence the style we use. Evidence can be found about phonological, grammatical and lexical variation in forms of address, that is, names or titles we use when we address others. Suppose prof. Dr.Raju Limbu is your best friend but these days you are attending his lectures on conflict management. Now, you can address him as Dr. Limbu in the class but at home, you can address him as Dr. Limbu in the class but at home, you can address him as Raju. It depends on the setting, roles, relationship etc.
2. How do health care access and cocts in poor countries differ from rich ones? Write briefly on the basis of the essay “Better Health for Everyone: Health Care in Two Worlds.”
Ans: Though all of us live on the same earth, there are two worlds of health. The best health care is not available in every corner of the world. There can be seen the vast difference regarding health care services are demanded and provided. But in the poorer nations. There are different priorities. In the wealthier nations, the best possible health care services are demanded and provided. But in the poorer countries, the harsh reality is that millions of children die annually from treatable infections such as diarrhea, measles, whooping cough, etc. In the industrial nations, such common diseases have almost disappeared. In the developing countries, the majority of illnesses are caused by contaminated water and inadequate sanitation.
As a result, there can be seen two words of medicine on earth. The rich industrial countries concern with heart diseases and cancer which are still incurable, where as the developing world is still fighting against the common illness that would disappear if basic health programs could be afforded. The western industrial world seeks to provide advanced treatments to the small section of the population, whereas the developing world is struggling to provide its majority of people with clean drinking water, vaccines, and essential drugs. Though these two worlds face different problems, they have some similarities as well regarding the challenges and possible solution.
3. What do you understand by prefixes and suffixes? Show the difference with the help of examples.
Ans: Groups of letter attached to the beginning of a word root are called prefixes. Groups of letters attached to the end of a world root are called suffixes. In general, prefixes change the meaning of a word and suffixes change its part of speech (noun, verb, adjective, and adverb).
Look at the following examples of roots, prefixes, and suffixes.
In English, many prefixes indicate something negative – that is, the prefixes mean “not,” “the opposite of, “ or “ lacking in.”
4. What do you understand by ‘intercultural communication’? How can one avoid intercultural misunderstandings that result from differences in body language?
Ans: Intercultural communication is a from communication that aims to share information across different cultures and social groups. It is used to describe the wide range of communication processes and problems that naturally appear within an organization made up of individuals from different religious, social, ethnic, and educational backgrounds. Intercultural communication is sometimes used synonymously with cross-cultural communication. In this sense, it seeks to understand how people from different countries and cultures act, communicate and perceive the world around them.
Many people in intercultural business communication argue that culture determines how individuals encode a message, what medium they choose for transmitting them, and the way message is interpreted. As a separate notion, it studies situations where people from different cultural backgrounds interact. Aside from language, interculutral communication focuses on social attributes, thought patterns, and the cultures of different groups of people.
It also involves understanding the different cultures, language, and customs of people from other countries. Intercultural communication plays a role in social sciences such as anthropology, cultural studies, linguistics, psychology and communication studies. Intercultural communication is also referred to as the base for international businesses. There are several cross-cultural service providers around who can assist with the development of intercultural communication skills. Research is a major part of the development of intercultural communication skills.
One avoids intercultural misunderstandings that result from a difference in body language by studying the culture of the new places. It can also be avoided through training, workshops and interaction programs.
5. What is the main idea of McCubbin and Dahl in the essay “Sex Roles”? What evidences do they put forward to prove their point and how?
Ans: This reading deals with the biological, cultural and social origins of sex roles. In this selection, the authors Hamilton McCubbin and Barbara Blum Dahl present the biological, social and cultural evidence for the formation of gender roles. Sex roles are the culturally defined expectations and assumptions associated with female and make character and behavior. Most sociologists refer to these sex roles as gender roles. The writers in this selection talk about the major issues related to the influences of nature (biological, hereditary) and nurture (cultural/ environmental) in shaping the gender roles. The authors argue that the biological (nature) origins of gender roles are important but the social and cultural origins (nurture) are much more important.
At the beginning of this reading, the authors make a distinction between ‘sex roles’ and gender ‘identity’. According to them, sex roles mean the patterns of feelings and behaviors considered to be appropriate and inappropriate for a female or male. On the other hand, gender identity means a person’s concept of self as a female or male. Such an identity is shaped by the understanding or realization of traditional sex role assumptions.
In the section titled “Genetics: The Biological Evidence,” the authors say that hormones clearly play a role in human physical development. They raise the question – “But what effect do hormones have on emotional development and actual behavior?” They stress that research into hormonal effects on the emotional development and behavior of females and males is still in its early stages. Though such researches into hormonal effects suggest a biological basis of gender differences, the authors put more emphasis on social and cultural factors.
The authors present that the typical behavior of males and females are different cultures. In cultures with traditional gender or sex roles, people think that biological and anthropological factors are more important in determining gender expectations. In cultures with less traditional gender roles, people think that cultural and social influences are more important.
6. What are the major issues raised in the essay “Climate Change: Managing the Global Greenhouse.”
Ans: This article tries to deal with the growing problem of climate change, its dreadful consequences and the possible measures of managing the global greenhouse. It tries to help the public understand the issue of global warming. There has been an intense debate among both scientists and politicians about global warming and about the appropriate response to it. Global warming has not been taken as a serious problem. Experts say that we are leaving our future generation a frightening inheritance: an increased accumulation of so-called greenhouse gases in the atmosphere and the potentially disastrous climate change. An essential first step to deal with this issue is to identify what we know and what we do not yet know about the phenomenon.
The major issues raised in the essay “Climate Change Manging the Global Greenhouse” are as follow:
a. Global Warming: Facts and Uncertainties: Scientists agree that gases like carbon dioxide (CO2), Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and methane (CH4) produce a greenhouse effect in the earth’s atmosphere. These gases warm the earth and prevent the heat from escaping out into space. An increase in the greenhouse gases will have a warming effect on the earth’s climate. Another fact is that any potential effect of greenhouse gases will be both long-term and global. CO2, CFCs, and CH4 will accumulate and remain in the atmosphere between ten and one hundred years. Moreover and thus, their effects will be felt by future generation all around the world. Evidence have shown that the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere has been increasing. It has been found that over the last two centuries, there has been a 31% increase in CO2 and a 150% increase in CH4.
b. Potential Effect of Climate Change: Despite some uncertainties, the majority of scientists argue that recent investigations have produced quite reliable evidence of warming. They argue that if we take effective andimmediate ations and measures, we can slow the rate of the accumulation of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. But if we do nothing, the impact and consequences of global warming will be fatal. There will be extremely serious consequences for natural ecosystems, agriculture, and human settlements.
In the past, ecosystems have successfully adapted to slow and gradual temperature changes. But it has been estimated that there will be an increase of two to six degrees Celsius in temperature in the next 100 years. This is far beyond than the natural increase and the ecosystems will surely be badly affected. Agricultural will also be seriously damaged by unchecked global warming. High temperatures and low rainfall will hamper cultivation, irrigation and agricultural production as a whole.
c. Responding to the Threat: The enormous, widespread damage that could be caused by climate change would have large-scale economic, social and political consequences by the end of the twnety-first century. Most of the scientists as well as politicians stress that immediate measures must be taken to reduce greenhouse gas emission and to slow global warming. Since the rich and industrial nations have enough economic resources, scientific knowledge, and technological expertise, and since these industrial nations are more responsible for the greenhouse gas emissions, they must start immediate actions and measures against this catastrophe. Governments of different nations can contribute a lot. They can develop energy conservation politics to reduce the demand for fossil fuels.
d. Rethinking our Priorities: The problem of global climate change can not be effectively addressed without the decision of the rich nations to spend a huge amount of money. Since the programs of reducing greenhouse gases are very expensive, the wealthier nations should assist the poorer countries to fight against this catastrophe. To change our traditional attitudes, policies, and behaviors, a global revolution in public and political thinking is necessary. It is necessary to develop a global ecological perspective and to identify and address the root cause of global warming.
7. Peter S. Gardner considers “Figures of Speech” as one of the writer’s techniques. What is Gardner’s main focus? Explain with appropriate examples.
Ans: Authors often use figurative language, or figures of speech, to make their writing lively and memorable. Figures of speech are imaginative comparisons between two dissimilar things. Such comparisons help readers visualize, identify with, and understand ideas by looking at familiar topics in new ways or at new topics in familiar ways.
The two most common types of figurative, or nonliteral language are similes and metaphors. A simile is a comparison between two dissimilar things, using th words like or as. A metaphor is a comparison between two dissimilar things, without using like or as.
Their marriage is like a storm.
Their marriage is a storm.
Their marriage is as rough as a storm.
Their stormy marriage led to a divorce.
8. How has mass media and technology changed our lives? Write a few paragraphs on this topic referring to the essays you have read in the section “Mass Media and Technology.”
Ans: Mass media refers to channels of communication that go to the public. Mass media include newspapers, magazines, televisions, radios, and Internet. Mass media are rapid. They spread the news as quickly as possible after they happen. Television also provides live shows or events.
Mass media are an important part of our life. Americans are more exposed to the media in print, sound, waves, and pictures. 55 million newspapers are circulated each day. 77 percent over the age of 12 listen to the radio. And radio listening time for those people is three hours each day. Each house has two sets of television with a viewing time of about seven hours per day. But the time differs according to age, gender, and education.
We don’t know many functions and purposes of the media. One important function is entertainment. There are many entertaining programs like comedy, talk shows, sports and so on.
Another function is education. Radio or television provides many educational programs. The programs are based on art, culture, literature and animal behavior. Sometimes there are instructional programs like how to cook, to decorate a house, and so on. Children also get many facilities from some educational programs. They know about life, society, and culture.
Media also provide community information. Media warn people. They inform people of possible danger like earthquake, flood, or weather. This makes people take precaution. It saves lives and property of the people. Similarly, the media warn us which things to eat and which not. What things are good or what are bad?
Further, the media help us to shape our beliefs. We see programs regularly. When we see programs regularly, we develop our opinions. Sometimes mass media encourage us to believe something. This practice is called propaganda. Similarly, advertisement programs also make us believe what they say. Some Americans falsely believe all flying objects to be space vehicles.
Another function of mass media is socialization. When we see programs, we follow some actions or things people do. We follow their appropriate behaviors. This helps us to change ourselves. Finally, TV programs work as our companions. When people talk, we take them as our friends.
There are varied functions and purposes of mass media. The influence of mass media on our life is considerable. It affects how we spend our time, money and what we got to see and hear about. It also influences the way we understand those events and shapes our beliefs, opinions, and behaviors.
9. To help a multicultural society, it is suggested that immigrants and native born people must learn about each other’s cultural ways, How does such learning take palace and become effective?
Ans: According to the writer, the immigrants and the native-born people should have solidarity and mutual understanding. The misunderstanding, biasness, resentment, negative attitudes against each other create serious problems. Because of misunderstanding and hostility, there can be violence, racial conflicts, social disorder, and even civil war. In order to avoid such problems, it is necessary that there should be understanding, cooperation, harmony, mutual sharing, intimacy, acceptance, and tolerance among each other.
In order to establish a multicultural society, immigrants and native-born people should try to share each other’s traditions, cultural and ethnic norms, and values. They should try to respect each other’s languages, lifestyles, beliefs, religious values, and other traditions. They should accept co-existence and live together as the members of the same family. They should avoid any kinds of prejudices, sense of superiority, resentment, jealously toward each other. If so happens, they will assimilate into the mainstream culture with the passage of time.
10. What does Sidel mean by the phrase “the New American Dreamer”? What are the major aspects of the American Dreamer according to Sidel?
Ans: The essay entitled “The New American Dreamers” written by Ruth Sidel discuss the hopes and dreams that young women in the United States have their personal and professional lives. The major aspects of the American dream are confident, out-going, Knowledgeable and involved. Most of the American dreamers are young women regardless of their class and economic background. They would like to be confident, outgoing and self-dependent. They would like to stand in their own feet. They are dedicated to achieving progress and prosperity through hard work. They would like to make their own decision. They would like to have a wide circle of friends. They want to take control of their lives.
They plan to achieve the expected things. They believe that women today should be the heroines of their own lives. They look towards the future, seeing themselves as the central characters, planning their career, their own success story. These young women don’t see themselves as playing supporting roles in someone’s life. They are planning their own journeys. They see their lives in terms of their aspirations, their hopes, and their dreams.
The young American women have a definite plan in their lives. They have supposed that they can achieve their dreams through hard work. They are not statisfied to take their traditional gendered roles. They have hoped that they can do whatever they want in their lives. Most American dreamers are young women who have a fundamentally optimistic attitude toward the future. They believe that progress is inevitable and that they have the ability to control their own destinies. They would like to have material possessions. They would like to be successful professionally. They like to balance their professional and private lives. From the very beginning of their school days, the young women have planned for their future career.
They look forward to their brighter future regardless of their present background. They don’t like to stay inside the house and look after the children. They suppose that success is in their hand. They would like to spend a romantic life with material possessions. They imagine having loving and caring husbands who would help them in achieving their goal. They would like to make their husbands happy by knowing their feelings and emotions.