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Attitude BBA Notes


Krech and Crutchfield defined attitude as an “enduring organization of motivational, emotional, perceptual and cognitive processes with respect to some aspect of the individual world.”

“Attitude is a tendency or predisposition to evaluate an object or symbol of that object in a certain way.” -Katz & Scotland

Relatively stable clusters of feelings, beliefs and behavioral intentions towards specific objects, people or institutions.

Components of Attitudes

Three components:

  • Affective component
  • Behavioral component
  • Cognitive component

AFFECTIVE COMPONENT: The emotional and feeling segment of an attitude. These are verbal statements about feelings. It refers to an individual’s feelings about something or someone. E. g. I like this.

Behavioral COMPONENT: An intention to behave in a certain way toward someone or something. It reflects observed behavior. E.g. I want to change my job.

COGNITIVE COMPONENT: The opinion or belief segment of an attitude. These are evaluative beliefs and are measured by attitude scales by talking about thoughts. E.g. I believe my boss is partial for some employees.

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Types of Attitude

Job Satisfaction: A positive feeling about one’s job resulting from an evaluation of its characteristics.

Job Involvement: The degree to which a person identifies with his or her job, actively participates in it, and considers his or her performance important to self-worth.

Organizational Commitment: The degree to which an employee identifies with a particular organization and its goals, and wishes to maintain membership in the organization.

Work Attitudes

Work Attitudes Work Attitudes Affective Normative Commitment Commitment Desire Perceived Organizational to obligation Commitment Remain to remain The strength of an individual’s identification with an organization Continuance Commitment Cannot afford to leave

The Theory of Cognitive Dissonance

The Theory of Cognitive Dissonance Desire to reduce dissonance

Cognitive dissonance: Any incompatibility between two or more attitudes or between behavior and attitudes

Desire to reduce dissonance

  • Importance of elements creating dissonance Importance of elements creating dissonance
  • Degree of individual influence over elements Degree of individual influence over elements
  • Rewards involved in dissonance Rewards involved in dissonance

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Type of Relationship Between Cognition

  • Dissonance: Incompatibility
  • Consonance: Consistent
  • Irrelevance: Unrelated

Cognitive Dissonance: (proposed by Leon Festinger) Refers to any incompatibility that an individual might perceive between two or more of his attitudes or behavior and attitude.

  • Paths to reduce dissonance Paths to reduce dissonance
  • Change behavior
  • Concluding behavior is not that important
  • Change the attitude
  • Outweigh the dissonant one.

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